security

How to calculate hash MD5-SHA1-SHA-256-CRC32 in Windows Linux Mac and online

What they are  Hash are used in computer science to map a string (a sequence of bits) of arbitrary length into a string of predefined length.  It is a sort of ‘signature’ of an electronic document. For each string you can calculate a hash, so each different string will have different hashes.  However, calculating the …

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How the Windows password works and why when we type a wrong one it takes more time to login

It may have happened that you entered the wrong password on Windows (XP/7/8/10…) and noticed that the computer took longer to retry the input field.  Many will have wondered why when you enter the correct password the PC recognizes it immediately, while it remains in a sort of semi-stall otherwise.   Some may have thought that …

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How to create a safe and easy to remember password

They say that the most used passwords are always the same (example: 123456, password, qwerty, etc. …), or in any case referable to birth dates or memorable moments of someone’s life. Well, using public characters or real places is not a good idea anyway: in fact there are some software (like John the Ripper) that are able to use huge dictionaries, …

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What are DNS, how to configure and protect DNS on Windows

DNS stands for Domain Name System, it is the protocol used globally for domain name translations. What does it mean?  When we type in the name of a website (e.g. spaceclick.com) our computer sends a DNS request to an appropriate server to translate this name into an IP address (e.g. 105.0.0.155). And then it connects to that IP address …

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Phishing brought to extreme levels exploiting punycode – How it works, how it to prevent and be sure of websites through SSL

Punycode is an encoding system that serves to represent a sequence of unicode characters via an ASCII character sequence, to make it possible to use these sequences in domain names, without having to modify existing infrastructure and standards.  In this way you can manage internationalized domain names (IDNA) by adding the characters ‘xn–‘ to the beginning of the punycode string.  For example, by entering xn–google.com as address, we …

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Public IP address and DDNS: what it is, how to check and set it to reach devices in LAN from WAN

A computer or any device, when connected to a network (LAN), is identified by an IP address assigned by the router.  This address is usually in the form 192.168.X.Y and it is released by the router’s DHCP to identify the various devices connected to it.   However, since the router itself is connected to the Internet …

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How to verify the security of certificates installed in Windows

Sigcheck is a useful tool provided free of charge by Microsoft to check your computer for harmful digital certificates.  You can download it from the Ms-TechNet website.   You can download it from the site, click on  How to use and once you have downloaded the tool and extracted the .zip, open a prompt window on the folder (by pressing the SHIFT key …

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How to create a shared folder on linux in few step

A simple guide to create a shared folder accessible and writable from any device on the local network.  Valid for Ubuntu, Debian, RaspberryPi, etc…  Warning: this is one of the simplest and shortest procedures and creates a public folder; to create folders with users and passwords the procedure is more complicated.   1. install samba sudo apt-get …

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Install and configure Apache web-server on Ubuntu or Debian (RaspberryPi)

To create an Apache-based web server, using a common Ubuntu or Debian machine, proceed as follows.   1. Install Apache  sudo apt-get update  sudo apt-get install apache2  To check if it’s correctly installed, go to the site  localhost  you should find ‘It works!  2. Configuration   All configuration files can be found in  “/etc/apache2”  this can be displayed via …

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