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How to calculate hash MD5-SHA1-SHA-256-CRC32 in Windows Linux Mac and online

What they are  Hash are used in computer science to map a string (a sequence of bits) of arbitrary length into a string of predefined length.  It is a sort of ‘signature’ of an electronic document. For each string you can calculate a hash, so each different string will have different hashes.  However, calculating the …

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RAR5 vs RAR4 vs 7ZIP – A quick comparison

Better. zip .7z or .rar?  Often we don’t even pay attention to it, but when we click on a ‘zipper’ file, we are using sophisticated compression algorithms that over the years keep getting better and better.   There are many algorithms and therefore compression formats:  Zipper, Rar, GZip, BZip2, 7z, Tar, Tar.gz …   Among the most popular on Windows we have: 7z, Zip and Rar.  The first and the second one …

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How to create a Wi-Fi hotspot in Windows 7 8 or Windows 10 in a few steps

In some situations we may have to connect to a Wifi network that is not ‘visible’ from our homes.  Especially on holiday, where we are forced to stand at the window to try to get a better signal from a public HotSpot.   How to ‘repeat’ the signal picked up outside, in our house?    We …

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How to create a safe and easy to remember password

They say that the most used passwords are always the same (example: 123456, password, qwerty, etc. …), or in any case referable to birth dates or memorable moments of someone’s life. Well, using public characters or real places is not a good idea anyway: in fact there are some software (like John the Ripper) that are able to use huge dictionaries, …

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What are DNS, how to configure and protect DNS on Windows

DNS stands for Domain Name System, it is the protocol used globally for domain name translations. What does it mean?  When we type in the name of a website (e.g. spaceclick.com) our computer sends a DNS request to an appropriate server to translate this name into an IP address (e.g. 105.0.0.155). And then it connects to that IP address …

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Phishing brought to extreme levels exploiting punycode – How it works, how it to prevent and be sure of websites through SSL

Punycode is an encoding system that serves to represent a sequence of unicode characters via an ASCII character sequence, to make it possible to use these sequences in domain names, without having to modify existing infrastructure and standards.  In this way you can manage internationalized domain names (IDNA) by adding the characters ‘xn–‘ to the beginning of the punycode string.  For example, by entering xn–google.com as address, we …

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Public IP address and DDNS: what it is, how to check and set it to reach devices in LAN from WAN

A computer or any device, when connected to a network (LAN), is identified by an IP address assigned by the router.  This address is usually in the form 192.168.X.Y and it is released by the router’s DHCP to identify the various devices connected to it.   However, since the router itself is connected to the Internet …

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